WANG Qiuhua,LI Xiaona,YE Biao,et al.Potential fire behaviors of ground fuels in pure forest of Pinus armandii Franch[J].Journal of Forestry Engineering,2019,4(06):151-157.[doi:10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.2019.06.021]





Potential fire behaviors of ground fuels in pure forest of Pinus armandii Franch
1.西南林业大学土木工程学院,云南省森林灾害预警与控制重点实验室,昆明 650224; 2.西南林业大学, 地理与生态旅游学院,昆明 650224; 3.云南森林自然中心,昆明 650224
WANG Qiuhua1 LI Xiaona2 YE Biao3 LONG Tengteng1 YAN Xiangxiang1 LI Shiyou1 DONG Ruyun1
1.School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Forestry University, Yunnan Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control, Kunming 650224, China; 2.School of Geography and Eco-toursim, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China; 3.Yunnan Natural Centre of Forestry, Kunming 650224, China
森林火灾 火焰高度 辐射热 火强度 潜在火行为 华山松 昆明
forest fire flame height radiation heat fire intensity potential fire behaviors Pinus armandii Franch Kunming
在实验室内模拟近似无风状态下华山松纯林地表可燃物的燃烧火行为,掌握潜在火行为相关特征,为安全扑救、避免人员伤亡提供参考依据。在昆明周边的云南森林自然中心华山松纯林内设置样地,通过外业调查、采样,在实验室燃烧床内模拟火行为,包括引燃时间、熄灭时间、辐射热、火焰高度、蔓延速率等,并计算火强度。华山松纯林地表可燃物的潜在火行为:点烧的可燃物含水率为5.71%~18.79%,接近野外的8.99%~14.96%,都很干燥、极易引燃; 上坡火和下坡火的引燃时间很短,仅为1~2 s,遇到火源就被引燃,产生明亮火焰; 下坡火的最大平均火焰高度达56.4 cm,明显高于上坡火的26.8 cm,前者的平均火焰温度最高为530 ℃,后者不到450 ℃; 上坡火和下坡火的平均热辐射((4.1±0.9)~(7.2±1.0)kW/m2和(4.2±0.7)~(6.9±1.0)kW/m2)、蔓延速率(0.14~0.35 m/min和0.12~0.26 m/min)、烧损率(23.81%~51.40%和22.79%~58.33%)以及火强度(102.4~293.7 kW/m和116.0~322.9 kW/m),差距不明显。华山松纯林地表可燃物潜在燃烧火行为是低强度火,小坡度燃烧特征明显:燃烧相对稳定、平缓、火蔓延慢,火焰高度和火强度较小。但在野外,、地表可燃物里有部分半分解、分解的树桩和大枝条,一旦着火,即使地表明火扑灭,在适宜条件下,也能死灰复燃,危险性高。
By examining fire behaviors of ground fuel in pure forest of Pinus armandii Franch in an approximately calm state in the laboratory, the features of fire behavior were investigated.The objectives of this research were to provide references for fire fighting, to put forward better counter measures for securely fire fighting, to avoid casualties, and to effectively prevent forest fires.After selecting typical plots of pure forest of Pinus armandii Franch, which placed in Nature Forestry Centre of Yunnan Province located on suburb of Kunming city.Forest fields were surveyed, samples were collected in the fields, and fire behaviors were investigated in the laboratory, which included the ignite time, extinguish time, radiation heat, and flame height and temperature, at the same time, the fire intensity was calculated.The results showed that ground fuels in pure forest of Pinus armandii Franch were in dry condition, such as the moisture contents of fuels before igniting were 5.71%-18.79%, while, moisture contents of field samples were 8.99%-14.96%, both were too dry to be ignited quickly, and their igniting time was one to two seconds.The average flame height of downhill fire was 56.4 cm, which was higher than the average flame height of 26.8 cm for upslope.The average flame temperatures of downhill and upslope were 530 ℃ and 450 ℃, respectively.The average heat radiation, spread speed, rate of fire loss and fire intensity of upslope and downhill fire were(4.1±0.9)-(7.2±1.0)kW/m2 and(4.2±0.7)-(6.9±1.0)kW/m2, 0.14-0.35 m/min and 0.12-0.26 m/min, 23.81%-51.40% and 22.79%-58.33%, 102.4-293.7 kw/m and 116.0-322.9 kW/m, respectively.The different gaps of these fire behaviors were not obvious.Burning fire behaviors of ground fuel in pure forest of Pinus armandii Franch at approximately calm state in the laboratory were corresponded to the characteristics of small slope combustion, including burning steady, gently, with slowly small flames, and low fire intensity.While, in fields, there were many partial and semi-decomposition of stumps and large branches, even if ground fire had been extinguished, in a suitable condition, forest fire should occur and spread again.


[1] 云南森林编写委员会.云南森林[M].昆明:云南科技出版社; 北京:中国林业出版社, 1984:115-118.
Compilation Committee of Yunnan Forest.Yunnan forest[M].Kunming: The Press of Yunnan Science and Technology; Beijing: The Press of Chinese Forestry, 1984:115-118.
[2] 骆介禹.森林燃烧能量学[M].哈尔滨: 东北林业大学出版社, 1992:45-85, 180.
LUO J Y.Forest combustion energy[M].Harbin: Northeast Forestry University Press, 1992:45-85, 180.
[3] 舒立福, 王明玉, 田晓瑞, 等.关于森林燃烧火行为特征参数的计算与表述[J].林业科学, 2004, 40(3): 179-183.DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2004.03.031.
SHU L F, WANG M Y, TIAN X R, et al.Calculation and description of forest fire behavior characters[J].Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2004, 40(3): 179-183.
[4] RYAN K.Dynamic interactions between forest structure and fire behavior in boreal ecosystems[J].Silva Fennica, 2002, 36(1): 13-19.DOI:10.14214/sf.548.
[5] BRADSTOCK R A, HAMMILL K A, COLLINS L, et al.Effects of weather, fuel and terrain on fire severity in topographically diverse landscapes of South-Eastern Australia[J].Landscape Ecology, 2010, 25(4): 607-619.DOI:10.1007/s10980-009-9443-8.
[6] KILPELÄINEN A, KELLOMÄKI S, STRANDMAN H, et al.Climate change impacts on forest fire potential in boreal conditions in Finland[J].Climatic Change, 2010, 103(3/4): 383-398.DOI:10.1007/s10584-009-9788-7.
[7] 张惠莲.林火行为与森林火灾扑救安全[J].森林防火, 2013(4): 55-58.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1002-2511.2013.04.020.
ZHANG H L.Forest fire behavior and forest fire safety fighting [J].Forest Fire Prevention, 2013(4): 55-58.
[8] 王凯, 牛树奎.基于Rothermel模型的北京鹫峰国家森林公园潜在火行为[J].浙江农林大学学报, 2016, 33(1): 42-50.DOI:10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.006.
WANG K, NIU S K.Research on the potential fire behavior in Jiufeng National Forest Park of Beijing based on the rothermel model[J].Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, 2016, 33(1): 42-50.
[9] 潘登, 张合平, 潘高, 等.基于Rothermel的南亚热带马尾松人工林潜在火行为研究[J].中南林业科技大学学报, 2017, 37(6): 14-23.DOI:10.14067/j.cnki.1673-923x.2017.06.003.
PAN D, ZHANG H P, PAN G, et al.Research on Masson pine potential fire behavior in southern subtropical based on behave plus[J].Journal of Central South University of Forestry & Technology, 2017, 37(6): 14-23.
[10] 黄小荣, 侯远瑞, 庞世龙, 等.南宁老虎岭马尾松林间伐前后的火行为[J].东北林业大学学报, 2015, 43(7): 92-96.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-5382.2015.07.021.
HUANG X R, HOU Y R, PANG S L, et al.Fire behavior of Pinus massoniana forest pre-thinning and post-thinning in tiger mountain, Nanning[J].Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 2015, 43(7): 92-96.
[11] 黄小荣, 庞世龙, 彭玉华, 等.广西苍梧马尾松林和大叶栎林的火行为比较[J].火灾科学, 2015, 24(1): 9-15.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5309.2015.01.02.
HUANG X R, PANG S L, PENG Y H, et al.Assessing fire potential of Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis fissa forests in Cangwu by fuel modelling[J].Fire Safety Science, 2015, 24(1): 9-15.
[12] 田晓瑞, 赵风君, 李红, 等.低强度火烧对长白山林区蒙古栎林的影响[J].自然灾害学报, 2007, 16(1): 66-70.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-4574.2007.01.013.
TIAN X R, ZHAO F J, LI H, et al.Influence of low intensity burning on Quercus mongolica forest in Changbai Mountain Region[J].Journal of Natural Disasters, 2007, 16(1): 66-70.
[13] 梁峻, 周礼洋, 叶枝茂.云南松林内可燃物与计划烧除火行为的相关分析[J].福建林业科技, 2009, 36(1): 49-53.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1002-7351.2009.01.010.
LIANG J, ZHOU L Y, YE Z M.Analysis of correlation between forest combustible and planned burn fire behavior in Pinus yunnanensis forest[J].Journal of Fujian Forestry Science and Technology, 2009, 36(1): 49-53.
[14] 章文杰, 王秋华, 肖慧娟, 等.思茅松林的可燃物与火行为研究[J].林业调查规划, 2011, 36(3): 65-68, 72.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1671-3168.2011.03.016.
ZHANG W J, WANG Q H, XIAO H J, et al.Research on combustible material and fire behaviors of Pinus kesiya[J].Forest Inventory and Planning, 2011, 36(3): 65-68, 72.
[15] 孙武, 牛树奎.北京地区主要针叶林型林火行为[J].东北林业大学学报, 2012, 40(2): 54-60.DOI:10.13759/j.cnki.dlxb.2012.02.012.
SUN W,NIU S K.Forest fire behavior in main coniferous forests in Beijing[J].Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 2012, 40(2): 54-60.
[16] 金森, 刘礴霏, 邸雪颖, 等.平地无风条件下蒙古栎阔叶床层的火行为Ⅰ.蔓延速率影响因子与预测模型[J].应用生态学报, 2012, 23(1): 51-59.DOI:10.13287/j.1001-9332.2012.0007.
JIN S, LIU B F, DI X Y, et al.Fire behavior of Mongolian Oak leaves fuel-bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions.Ⅰ.Factors affecting fire spread rate and modeling[J].Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2012, 23(1): 51-59.
[17] 张吉利, 刘礴霏, 邸雪颖, 等.平地无风条件下蒙古栎阔叶床层的火行为Ⅱ.火焰长度和驻留时间影响因子分析与预测模型[J].应用生态学报, 2012, 23(11): 3149-3156.DOI:10.13287/j.1001-9332.2012.0471.
ZHANG J L, LIU B F, DI X Y, et al.Fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions.Ⅱ.Analysis of the factors affecting flame length and residence time and related prediction models[J].Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2012, 23(11): 3149-3156.
[18] 张吉利, 刘礴霏, 褚腾飞, 等.广义Rothermel模型预测平地无风条件下红松-蒙古栎林地表混合可燃物的火行为[J].应用生态学报, 2012, 23(6): 1495-1502.DOI:10.13287/j.1001-9332.2012.0250.
ZHANG J L, LIU B F, CHU T F, et al.Fire behavior of ground surface fuels in Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica mixed forest under no wind and zero slope condition: a prediction with extended Rothermel model[J].Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2012, 23(6): 1495-1502.
[19] 孙武, 牛树奎, 赵蓓, 等.大岗山地区主要林型可燃物调查与林火行为[J].江西农业大学学报, 2012, 34(6): 1171-1179.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2286.2012.06.016.
SUN W, NIU S K, ZHAO B,et al.Forest fuel survey and fire behavior in main forests in Dagangshan[J].Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis, 2012, 34(6): 1171-1179.
[20] DE LUIS M, BAEZA M J, RAVENTÓS J, et al.Fuel characteristics and firebehavior in mature Mediterranean gorse shrublands[J].International Journal of Wildland Fire, 2004, 13(1): 79.DOI:10.1071/wf03005.
[21] MORANDINI F, SILVANI X, ROSSI L, et al.Fire spread experiment across mediterranean shrub: influence of wind on flame front properties[J].Fire Safety Journal, 2006, 41(3): 229-235.DOI:10.1016/j.firesaf.2006.01.006.
[22] 田晓瑞, 王明玉, 殷丽, 等.大兴安岭南部春季火行为特征及可燃物消耗[J].林业科学, 2009, 45(3): 90-95.DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2009.03.016.
TIAN X R, WANG M Y, YIN L, et al.Fire behavior and consumption of fuel loadings in spring season in southern Daxing'an Mountains[J].Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2009, 45(3): 90-95.
[23] 李世友, 陈文龙, 王鹏, 等.华山松朽木阴燃特性的初步研究[J].林业调查规划, 2009, 34(1): 63-65.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1671-3168.2009.01.016.
LI S Y, CHEN W L, WANG P, et al.Preliminary study on characteristics of smoldering combustion of Pinus armandii deadwood[J].Forest Inventory and Planning, 2009, 34(1): 63-65.
[24] 李眉慧, 李世友, 王秋华.云南森林自然中心生物防火阻隔带设计[J].林业调查规划, 2006, 31(S1): 301-304.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1671-3168.2006.z1.095.
LI M H, LI S Y, WANG Q H.Design of fire belts in Yunnan natural center [J].Forest Inventory and Planning, 2006, 31(S1): 301-304.
[25] 罗冰, 何芳, 高振强, 等.生物质燃烧和阴燃过程对比[J].山东理工大学学报(自然科学版), 2013, 27(1): 21-24.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1672-6197.2013.01.006.
LUO B, HE F, GAO Z Q, et al.Comparison of biomass combustion and smoldering[J].Journal of Shandong University of Technology(Natural Science Edition), 2013, 27(1): 21-24.
[26] 辛颖, 薛伟.贮木场木材剩余物阴燃过程研究[J].西部林业科学, 2011, 40(1): 17-20.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1672-8246.2011.01.004.
XIN Y, XUE W.Procedure of smoldering combustion of wood residue in log yard[J].Journal of West China Forestry Science, 2011, 40(1): 17-20.
[27] 李世友, 马爱丽, 王学飞, 等.3种森林凋落物的阴燃特性[J].中南林业科技大学学报, 2009, 29(1): 60-63, 78.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-923X.2009.01.013.
LI S Y, MA A L, WANG X F, et al.Smoldering combustion characteristics of 3 kinds of forest litter[J].Journal of Central South University of Forestry & Technology, 2009, 29(1): 60-63, 78.
[28] 历美岑, 辛颖.森林凋落物的阴燃实验研究[J].西部林业科学, 2016, 45(6): 84-88.DOI:10.16473/j.cnki.xblykx1972.2016.06.015.
LI M C, XIN Y.Experimental study on smoldering combustion of forest litter[J].Journal of West China Forestry Science, 2016, 45(6): 84-88.
[29] 朱霁平, 刘小平, 林其钊, 等.变坡度情况下森林地表上坡火行为若干特征的实验研究[J].火灾科学, 1999, 8(2): 63-71.
ZHU J P, LIU X P, LIN Q Z, et al.Experimental study on upslope forest surface fire upon changing slope[J].Fire Safety Science, 1999, 8(2): 63-71.
[30] 袁春明, 文定元.马尾松人工林可燃物负荷量和烧损量的动态预测[J].东北林业大学学报, 2000, 28(6): 24-27.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-5382.2000.06.006.
YUAN C M, WEN D Y.Dynamic prediction for forest fuel loading and fuel consumption of Masson pine plantation[J].Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 2000, 28(6): 24-27.


 PENG Xujian,Guo Futao,HU Haiqing,et al.Estimation of NO and SO2 emission by forest fires in the Da Hinggan Mountains[J].Journal of Forestry Engineering,2015,29(06):134.[doi:10.13360/j.issn.1000-8101.2015.05.033]
 CHEN Yue,ZHAO Yaqin*,JIANG Linquan,et al.Background subtraction algorithms for detecting flame pixels of forest fire[J].Journal of Forestry Engineering,2018,3(06):131.[doi:10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.2018.04.022]
 SUN Liyan,LIU Meiling*,ZHOU Lixiang,et al.Research on forest fire prediction method based on deep learning[J].Journal of Forestry Engineering,2019,4(06):132.[doi:10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.2019.03.020]


收稿日期:2018-09-10 修回日期:2019-06-21 基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31660210,31960318)。 作者简介:王秋华,男,教授,研究方向为森林防火。E-mail:qhwang2010@swfu.edu.cn
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-11-10