SUN Delin,JI Xiaoqin,WANG Zhanghen,et al.Research progress and development trends of woodceramics[J].Journal of Forestry Engineering,2020,5(01):1-10.[doi:10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.201906016]





Research progress and development trends of woodceramics
中南林业科技大学材料科学与工程学院,长沙 410004
SUN Delin JI Xiaoqin WANG Zhanghen SUN Zhenyu ZHU Zhihong
College of Material and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China
木陶瓷 制备方法 基本性能 发展趋势
woodceramics preparation method basic performance development trends
TB332; S785
随着自然资源的消耗和环保意识的增强,人们不断寻找绿色资源的高质化利用方法,以木材(及其他生物质材料)为主要原材料、采用高温烧结制备的木陶瓷日益受到关注。这种新型的多孔炭材料不仅在一定程度上保存了生物质材料多层次孔隙结构特征,而且具有良好的热学、电磁学、摩擦学和电化学等特性,应用前景广阔。笔者从制备的原辅材料、胶黏剂、功能性添加剂、成型与烧结工艺、结构形态及应用前景等方面出发,详细介绍了国内外在木陶瓷方面所取得的最新成就,并从基本结构与微观形貌、孔隙大小与分布状态、力学性能与行为等方面对其理化性能进行了概括; 同时,就物相构成与微晶结构演变、金属离子掺杂机理与复合机制、结构增强机理与界面结构模型等基础理论进行探讨; 对吸波与电磁屏蔽特性、电化学与储能性能等功能进行比较与分析,并就材料、结构、制备工艺等对基本性能的影响进行了总结; 最后从基础理论的深化、制备方法的改进、基本性能的提升以及使用范围的扩展等方面为今后木陶瓷的研究提出一些建议,旨在进一步提升这种新型炭基多孔材料的性能,为其在高效储能、化工合成、电子电器、航空航天等领域得到更广泛的应用提供依据与参考。
With growing consumption of nature resources and concerns about maintaining an environment capable of supporting human civilization, people have begun to look for some green preparation methods of environment-friendly materials to improve the high-quality utilization of green resources. As a new porous carbon-based material, woodceramics is prepared from wood(and other biomass materials)and sintered at high temperature, which has attracted much attention because of its excellent performance. It is not only partly preserved the characteristics of multi-layer pore structure of biomass materials, but also has been given many new functions, which could keep the good thermology, electromagnetism, tribology and electrochemical characteristics, and has a wide range of applications in many fields, such as electromagnetic shielding materials, ablation resistant materials, high temperature filter, catalyst carrier, solid friction materials, and supercapacitor electrode. In this paper, the current research achievements of woodceramics are introduced in detail from the aspects of raw and auxiliary materials, adhesive, functional additives, molding method and sintering process, structural form and application prospect. The physical and chemical properties are summarized from the aspects of basic structure and micro morphology, pore size and distribution, mechanical properties and mechanical behavior, and the effects of 3D network structure, layered structure and fiber reinforced structure on the performance are emphatically discussed. At the same time, the basic theories of phase composition and microcrystalline structure evolution, metal ion doping mechanism and composite rules, structure enhancement mechanism and interface structure model are discussed. Subsequently, the characteristics of absorption and electromagnetic shielding, electrochemistry and energy storage are compared and analyzed. And then, the influences of raw materials, basic structure, forming process, sintering temperature, rate of temperature increase, dwelling time and activation method on the basic properties of woodceramics are also summarized. In the end, some suggestions are put forward for the future study of woodceramics from deepening of the fundamental theory, improvement of preparation method, promotion of basic properties and extension of application, which can provide some references for further improving the properties of this new carbon-based multi-porous materials and extending its applications in fields of energy storage, chemical synthesis, electronical appliances, aerospace, etc.


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收稿日期:2019-06-20 修改日期:2019-09-22
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31670572,31270611); 中南林业科技大学研究生科技创新基金(CX20192002)。
作者简介:孙德林,男,教授,研究方向为木制品和木质复合材料。E-mail: sdlszy@163.com
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-12-10