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Preparation of the activated carbon from Macadamia shell by zinc chloride activation(PDF)

Journal of Forestry Engineering[ISSN:2096-1359/CN:32-1862/S]

Issue:
2020 No.06
Page:
106-113
Research Field:
林产化学加工 执行主编:王飞 张美云
Publishing date:
2020-11-01

Info

Title:
Preparation of the activated carbon from Macadamia shell by zinc chloride activation
Author(s):
GUO Gangjun1 MA Shangxuan1 HU Xiaojing2 FU Jiarong1 XU Wenlong2 HUANG Kechang1 ZOU Jianyun1
1. Yunnan Institute of Tropical Crops, Yunnan 666100, China; 2. School of Chemistry and Engineering, Wenshan University, Yunnan 663000, China
Keywords:
Macadamia shell activated carbon zinc chloride activation technology optimization structural characterization
PACS:
TQ424.1
DOI:
10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.202001027
Abstract:
The activated carbon of Macadamia shell was prepared with zinc chloride as an activating agent. The effects of activation time, impregnation ratio, activation temperature, zinc chloride mass fraction and impregnation time, on the yield and the adsorptive capacity of the activated carbon were studied, and the optimal preparation conditions were determined. The properties and pore structure of the activated carbon were characterized with the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nitrogen adsorptiondesorption. The results showed that the contents of carbon element, hydrogen element, oxygen element, nitrogen element and ash in Macadamia shell were 50.24%, 7.06%, 39.92%, 0.28%, and 1.02%, respectively. The Macadamia shell contained higher fixed carbon and lower ash and had the condition of preparing high quality activated carbon. The effect of five processing conditions on the yield, the methylene cyanine adsorption value, and the iodine adsorption value of the activated carbon of Macadamia shell was all in the descending order of the activation time, impregnation ratio, impregnation time, activation temperature and zinc chloride mass fraction. The optimal preparation conditions were determined as follows: activation time of 3.5 h, impregnation ratio of 1∶4, activation temperature of 550 ℃, zinc chloride mass fraction of 50%, and impregnation time of 19 h. Under these conditions, the yield, water content, ash content, strength, methylene cyanine adsorption value and iodine adsorption value of the activated carbon were 49.95%, 1.45%, 0.84%, 96.78%, 412 mg/g and 1 830 mg/g, respectively. The specific surface area of the activated carbon of Macadamia shell was 1 174 m2/g, the micropore and mesoporous specific surface area accounted for 42.33% and 57.67%, respectively. The total pore volume was 0.82 cm3/g, the micropore and mesoporous pore volume accounted for 29.27% and 70.73%, respectively. The average pore size was 2.80 nm, the micropores size was between 0.93 and 1.61 nm, and the mesoporous size was between 2 and 10 nm. The activated carbon of Macadamia shell belonged to the mesoporous activated carbon, which possessed a larger proportion of micropores and higher adsorption capacity. Besides, the oxygencontaining functional groups such as phenol, alcohol hydroxyl, ether, carboxyl, carboxyl etc. existed in the surface of activated carbon, which possessed the certain hydrophilic and stronger adsorptive capacity. Compared to the China national standards, the quality index and adsorption capacity values of Macadamia shell activated carbon were up to the standard requirements of the first grade activated carbon. The results can provide the references for the development and utilization of Macadamia shell.

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Last Update: 2020-11-11