[1]胡文刚,关惠元.基于生物力学的老年人坐立转换模型[J].林业工程学报,2020,5(06):174-178.[doi:10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.202001024]
 HU Wengang,GUAN Huiyuan.The sit-to-stand transformation model for elders based on biomechanics[J].Journal of Forestry Engineering,2020,5(06):174-178.[doi:10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.202001024]
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基于生物力学的老年人坐立转换模型()
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《林业工程学报》[ISSN:2096-1359/CN:32-1862/S]

卷:
5
期数:
2020年06期
页码:
174-178
栏目:
家具制造工程
出版日期:
2020-11-01

文章信息/Info

Title:
The sit-to-stand transformation model for elders based on biomechanics
文章编号:
2096-1359(2020)06-0174-05
作者:
胡文刚关惠元
南京林业大学家居与工业设计学院,南京210037
Author(s):
HU Wengang GUAN Huiyuan
College of Furnishings and Industrial Design, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
关键词:
生物力学辅助站立适老家具座椅设计人体工程学
Keywords:
biomechanics assisted standing elderfriendly furniture chair design ergonomics
分类号:
S781.29
DOI:
10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.202001024
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
随着人口的老龄化,针对老年人家具设计的研究方兴未艾,尤其是老年人辅助站立座椅的设计备受关注。但现有研究多从定性的角度对老年人家具进行了功能和造型的设计。座椅作为日常工作和生活中使用最频繁的家具之一,直接影响着工作效率和舒适性。坐立转换动作是完成站立的关键,而老年人完成这一动作却十分困难,甚至存在安全隐患。本研究从生物力学的角度对坐立转换行为进行了定量研究。首先通过图解方法将人体各环节简化为生物力学运动链,并通过受力分析得出站立阶段初期是完成站立的关键,此时人体上肢重量与下肢所提供的力量处于平衡状态;然后采用力的合成方法求得人体上肢的合重力及重心位置,并通过力矩平衡方法建立了人体在进行坐立转换过程中,下肢肌肉群所需提供的力量与人的身高和体重之间的关系,进而建立了老年人坐立转换的生物力学模型;最后通过标准人体数据对模型进行了验证,发现老年人完成坐立转换动作时下肢所需力量超过下肢所能提供肌肉力量的90%。本研究为老年人辅助站立座椅的设计和评价提供了方法和理论指导。
Abstract:
With aging of population, the studies on furniture design for elders are booming, especially for the elder assisted chair, which attracts numerous attentions. However, the most published reports were focused on the function and form design from qualitative perspective. Chair is one of the most common furniture used in our daily life and work, which influences the working efficient and comfort. Sittostand transformation is crucial for completing standing. According to the reported data, sittostand behavior is repeated 60±22 times per day, and the number for people work indoor is more than that for people work outdoor. It is easy for youths to perform the sittostand behavior, while for elders, it is a tough challenge, and sometimes a potential danger. In this study, the sittostand transformation of the elder was studied based on biomechanics from quantitative perspective. Firstly, a simplified kinematic chain model of biomechanics was established by the graphic method. The preliminary standing stage was found to be a critical point for completing the sittostand transformation when the total gravity of upper limb was mechanically equilibrium to the force that the lower limb provided. Secondly, the position of center gravity of the upper limb was calculated using the method of force synthesis. The model was developed based on the moment equilibrium equation, which can be used to predict the forces that the lower limb provided during the sittostand transformation. Finally, the model was verified using the anthropometry data of a common human being. It was found that the force needed the lower limb to provide over 90% maximum force that the lower limb can provide. The model can be used to design and evaluate the elder assistant standing chair to achieve a more reasonable solution. As we known, the knee joint plays an important role in transformation of sittostand for the elder, while the seat height of chair influences the position of knee joint. If the seat height is lower than the height of the legs adding foot, the focus moves backward, it is not good for standing up. When the seat height is higher than the standard value, the foot cannot reach the ground, which will make all weights of the upper limb to concentrate on the thighs and make the elder to feel tired soon. Thus, it should be considered to provide reasonable assistant to reduce the load of knee joint for the elder.

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2020-01-13? ?修回日期: 2020-03-08
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD061104);南京林业大学水杉师资科研启动费(163104060)。
作者简介:胡文刚,男,讲师,研究方向为家具设计及理论。E-mail: hwg@njfu.edu.cn
更新日期/Last Update: 2020-11-11